Huntington-Klein, Nick and Elizabeth Ackert (2018). The Long Road to Equality: A Meta-Regression Analysis of Changes in the Black Test Score Gap over Time. Social Science Quarterly. 99(3), p. 1119-1133
Link. Working Paper PDF. Online Appendices.
Abstract: This study performs a meta-regression analysis of over 1,100 regressions in 165 studies to examine the relationship between African American racial status and student achievement scores in K-12 education from 1979 to 2010. The study examines time trends in the black test score gap and estimates the extent to which controls for confounding variables including socioeconomic status and schooling characteristics attenuate the size of the gap. Across the samples in the study, the absolute relationship between Black status and achievement decreased during the 1980s and early 1990s, but has been stagnant since the late 1990s. We estimate that socioeconomic status alone explains more than half of the gap, and this influence does not vary significantly over the time period of interest. Controlling for differences in school characteristics only reduces the gap slightly, but school-level factors explain an increasing proportion of the gap over time.
Huntington-Klein, Nick and Elaina Rose (2018). Peer Effects in a Predominantly Male Environment: Evidence from West Point. AEA Papers and Proceedings. 108, p. 392-395.Link.
Abstract: The last several decades have seen a dramatic increase in the
representation of women in traditionally male professions (e.g. Goldin 2014). Growth has been slower among Science/Technology/Engineering/Math (STEM) fields and military officers. Economists have paid much attention to the former, far less to the latter. Explanations include (Bertrand et al. 2010). The literature on female performance in these areas is wide, but many descriptive studies support to some degree the commonly held belief that women with women peers and mentors are more likely to enter and persist in male-advantaged environments (e.g. Drury et al. 2011; Flabbi et al. 2012; Kunze & Miller 2014). These studies are limited, as standard issues with peer and mentor effects studies apply, including the endogenous selection of group. This paper follows previous work recognizing that random assignment of cadets (students) to companies and classes at military academies can help inform our understanding of interactions in broader contexts (Lyle 2007; Carrell et al. 2008). We extend Lyle's (2007) work by estimating gender-specific peer and mentor effects and focus
on retention of women at West Point in the first years in which women were admitted. We find that women do significantly better when placed in companies with more women peers. The addition of one woman peer is predicted to reduce the gender progression gap by half. We see no effect of peer gender on the retention of men.
Huntington-Klein, Nick (2018). College Choice as a Collective Decision. Economic Inquiry. 56(2), p. 1202-1219.
Link. Working Paper PDF.
Abstract: Although the choice between colleges can be thought of as being made collectively by a family, models of educational choice almost universally portray the decision as made by the student alone. Using a novel experimental method for identifying collective decision functions, I find that students have more influence than parents over the decision, but not exclusive control. Students care more than parents about classroom experience and future earnings. Ignoring the dual-agent nature of the decision can weaken predictions and lead to poorly-targeted policy designs.
Goldhaber, Dan, Cyrus Grout, and Nick Huntington-Klein (2017). Screen Twice, Cut Once: Assessing the Predictive Validity of Applicant Selection Tools. Education Finance and Policy. 12(2), p. 197-223.
Despite their widespread use, there is little academic evidence on whether applicant selection tools can improve teacher-hiring processes. We examine two screening instruments used to select classroom teachers. The screening instruments strongly predict teacher value-added in math and teacher attrition and weakly predict value-added in reading, but do not predict teacher absences. An increase of one standard deviation in screening scores is associated with an increase of about 0.06 standard deviations of student math achievement and a decrease in teacher attrition of three percentage points. These results are robust to corrections for sample selection.
Huntington-Klein, Nick, James Cowan, and Dan Goldhaber (2017). Selection into Online Community College Courses and their Effects on Persistence. Research in Higher Education. 58(3), p. 244-269.
Abstract: Online courses at the college level are growing in popularity, and nearly all community colleges offer online courses (Allen & Seaman, 2015). What is the effect of the expanded availability of online curricula on persistence in the field and towards a degree? We use a model of self-selection to estimate the effect of taking an online course, using region and time variation in internet service as a source of identifying variation. Our method, as opposed to standard experimental methods, allows us to consider the effect among students who actually choose to take such courses. For the average person, taking an online course has a negative effect on the probability of taking another course in the same field and on the probability of earning a degree. The negative effect on graduation for for students who choose to take an online course is stronger than the negative effect for the average student. Community colleges must balance these results against the attractive features of online courses, and may want to consider actively targeting online courses towards those most likely to do well in them.
Huntington-Klein, Nick (2017). A Method for Estimating Local Average Treatment Effects in Aggregate Data with Imperfect Assignment. Applied Economics Letters. 24(11), p. 762-765.
Abstract: In some contexts, the effect of a treatment can be estimated with easily-accessible aggregate rather than individual data, using difference-in-difference estimation. However, under imperfect assignment this produces intent-to-treat estimates, which may not be the treatment effect of interest. This paper provides a method for estimating local average treatment effects using aggregate data. I also suggest a data source that allows the method to be applied when treatment rates are not recorded.
Huntington-Klein, Nick (2016). "(Un)informed College and Major Choice": Verification in an Alternate Setting. Economics of Education Review (53), p. 159-163.
Abstract: In their recent paper "(Un)informed College and Major Choice: Evidence from Linked Survey and Administrative Data," Hastings, Neilson, Ramirez, & Zimmerman (2016) provide an informal costly-information model, linking family background to students’ beliefs about educational costs and benefits. They verify predictions of their model using a data set of beliefs about college institutions and majors among Chilean college applicants and students. I test some of those same predictions using a data set of beliefs about college institutions and different levels of college education among high school students in the United States. I verify their predictions, with some exceptions, supporting the use of their costly-search model.
Long, Mark C., Dan Goldhaber, and Nick Huntington-Klein (2015). Do Students' College Majors Respond to Changes in Wages? Economics of Education Review (49), p. 1-14.
Abstract: In an analysis connecting labor market earnings to college major choices, we find statistically significant relationships between changes in wages by occupation and subsequent changes in college majors completed in related fields of college study between 1982 and 2012. College majors (defined at a detailed level) are most strongly related to wages observed three years earlier, when students were college freshmen. The responses to wages vary depending on the extent to which there is a strong mapping of majors into particular occupations. We also find that women, blacks, Hispanics, and students with low test scores are less likely to respond to wage changes. These findings have implications for policy interventions designed to align students’ major choices with labor market demand.
Huntington-Klein, Nick (2015). Subjective and Projected Returns to Education. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (117). p. 10-25.
Link. Recipient of 2013 Storer Award for Labor Economics.
Abstract: There is significant heterogeneity over high school students in the wage and employment rate returns to education. I evaluate this heterogeneity using subjective returns derived from a data set of high school juniors and seniors in Washington State. Variation over observables in projected returns estimated using observed data is uncorrelated with variation in subjective returns elicited by directly asking students about their beliefs. These results mean that returns estimated using observed data are likely a very weak proxy for student beliefs.